Summarising the Solution for Wave-Particle Duality
Before looking into the way reported data can be explained it is desirable to summarise the solution built up by the argument developed in preceding chapters. Some new material is included, so the stoics who have not jumped a few chapters will still find it worthwhile to stay with this revision part. First let us be sure we have everything well-defined so that there is no room for ambiguity.
Light is a form of energy which could be defined as a physical form, entirely different from the psychic kind. Only physical kinds are as yet considered in Physics. We will usually call it just "energy", understanding that the psychic kind is not involved unless specifically stated. In the new solution subatomic particles are at all times solid little objects built from energy. Nobody knows what energy really is since this is beyond our depth of understanding. However, the basic laws of physics which control the way energy behaves are well understood. So we use the term as if we know just exactly what it is. Physical energy, for example, is of the kind involved in the lifting of a weight. Indeed the weight of an object is the force exerted on it by the gravitational field of the Earth. This force, multiplied by the height through which it is lifted, is a direct measure of the energy expended in lifting.
Energy can exist in many alternative forms and, in principle at least, all forms are mutually convertible. For example, in a car engine the chemical energy locked up in the fuel is first converted to the energy of high temperature gases. This is actually a form of "kinetic energy", that of motion. This is because by burning the fuel the speed of molecules, of which the gases consist, is greatly increased. The engine then converts some of this "heat energy" to the mechanical kind. Then if the car it is driving is moving uphill, some of this will be converted to the kind involved in the lifting of a weight.
Einstein's famous equation,
E=mc2, shows that energy "E" is equivalent to mass "m", multiplied by the square of the speed of light "c". Hence an object at rest and accorded a "rest mass"
"mo" can be considered as constructed from an equivalent "rest energy"
"Eo". So objects at rest are made from rest energy and when they move an energy of motion or kinetic energy is imparted. These energy forms add up to a "total energy". The "m" in Einstein's equation, usually called the "relative mass" due to the history of its origin, is then equivalent to this total energy. This total really needs to include all kinds except gravitational potential energy (GPE) and the psychic sort. The exclusion of GPE is a new departure, the reason for which will become clear later. Hence all matter and its motion are somehow constructed from energy.
This description applies to electrons and the nuclei of atoms but the energy carriers of light, have no rest energy. They cannot exist at rest, being constructed of kinetic energy alone. As a consequence they can only travel at the ultimate propagation speed of physical energy- the speed of light.
Next, quantum theory shows all energy forms are discontinuous. Energy exists in discrete packages called "quantal'. A quantum of light is a particle called the "photon". Countless billions of them propagate in streams when an object is illuminated so that we can see it, but they move in a complex way. They each carry with them oscillating force-fields of electricity and magnetism, even though they do not themselves carry any electric charge. These are "transverse" waves, which means that a sideways oscillatory motion is induced like that of a skippingrope. The direction of this motion, as shown by the electric component, gives the direction of "polarisation" of the wave. A beam of ordinary light has photons snaking about in all sideways directions. A piece of polarised glass only allows those moving in a certain sideways direction to pass. It acts as a filter to provide "polarised light". Light has the same nature as radio waves. The only difference is that the frequency of waves is much greater in the case of light. All such waves depend on photons as carriers.
They interact strongly with sub-atomic particles called "electrons", which do carry charges of electricity. Electrons can be caused to accelerate rapidly by allowing them to fall in electric fields so that they can move in beams, spinning on their axes as they go. They form the active parts which create the pictures on television screens. Photons can be both produced and absorbed by electrons. Indeed it is the violent agitation of electrically charged particles which causes photons to be emitted. This is usually the way light and radiant heat are created. But the natural home of the electron is the atom.
Matter when subdivided to its limit is found to be made from atoms. Atoms are not the solid little balls they were at first assumed to be. Instead they are almost empty space. They have a centrally located and relatively massive nucleus carrying a positive electric charge and the size of the atom is governed by the negatively charged electrons which move around them in a complex way. The opposite electric charges produce a powerful attractive force which holds the electron close to the nucleus. A few atoms forming part of a crystal are illustrated in FIG.2.
Until quite recently I considered scientific knowledge of this kind to rule out the possibility of a Spiritual side to existence. I think the way my about turn took place must be unusual. It resulted from a deeper study of physics!
This conversion arose from trying to work out a plausible solution to the mystifying phenomenon called "wave-particle duality", (WPD). It implied that an all-pervading network must exist throughout the universe, connecting everything to everything else as has been explained in earlier chapters.
WPD can be understood best by considering the famous two-slit experiment of Thomas Young illustrated in FIG.1. He passed a narrow beam of light through the two slits and showed that an "interference pattern" of stripes appeared on a screen placed further away. Wave patterns can be produced by throwing two pebbles together into a still pond. An interference pattern arises in the region where ripples spreading out from the two centres cross over each other. Consequently Young's experiment demonstrated light to have a wave nature.
The waves spread out from the two slits and where the two sets of peaks coincide they mutually reinforce, but where peak meets trough they cancel. In FIG.1 the places where "constructive interference" occurs are shown by short thick lines. These are where peak meets peak and trough meets trough.
But two discoveries were subsequently made which threw the entire scientific world into total confusion. The same pattern was built up when only one particle travelled through the apparatus at any one time! Worse still all sub-atomic components, known to be discrete particles, such as the electrons which buzz around the atom's nucleus, also behaved in exactly the same way as if they were waves.
How could a single particle go through both slits at once and interfere with itself like a pair of mutually interfering wave trains? This was the vexed question which caused so much head-scratching.
Many solutions were proposed, some of which assumed that particles were made from "wave functions" whilst in transit and only collapsed into particles on observation. (The term "wave function" is scientific jargon which means the "heights" of all waves added together and then squared.) But none were consistent with all the facts and paradoxes abounded as described in Chapter 3.
The main purpose of this book was to develop a more rational interpretation free from paradox i.e. any kind of contradiction in either the initial assumptions or predictions. In the new solution which developed, particles and waves are considered as totally separate entities!
Particles are now always tiny objects made from physical energy. But in the new interpretation what appears to us as a permanent entity must in reality be a sequence of very short-lived particles. They are unstable and keep collapsing to leave the energy from which they were constructed in a disorganised state. Disorganised energy needs to be used as raw material for the reconstruction of a replica particle having the same momentum, velocity, spin and any other relevant property such as polarisation, as its predecessor. Such requirements need a control system. The point of reappearance also needs some form of control system if light or matter is to act according to the manner observed.
Waves form the required control system. They are not made from either energy or anything else. They are Of an abstract nature like numbers. Wave-numbers need to be added and squared at closely-spaced points and allocated coordinates arranged on a three-dimensional grid. Hence they need to be manipulated by some form of Computing system. The way waves can be represented by numbers is described in detail in Chapter 4 and is worth reading if the statement just made does not seem to make sense. A three-dimensional structure of criss-crossing filaments needs to be postulated as existing in space. This cannot be detected, because it is beyond the reach Of our senses. It is fine-grained even on an atomic scale.
The crossing-points of filaments form natural switches. Now vast numbers of switches, acting in concert, form the basis of all computers. Such a system must exist and could have arisen spontaneously. it could have developed by some form of forced evolutionary process as described at length in Chapter 6. It also needs to contain the means for particle reconstruction, using as raw material the residual energy of previously expired particles, whose disorganised energy has been absorbed by the filaments. At least 1,000 particle factories need to be housed within the orbital of each tiny atom. Let us call this complete structure the "Grid". Although mind-boggling in its immensity, considering that such a structure must extend for billions of light-years throughout space, the concept is not fundamentally impossible to imagine. It just means that the deeper we look into the meaning behind existence, the more wonderful and astonishing it appears to be.
So the particles themselves are not waves at all. They are simply controlled by waves which are totally abstract in nature. waves are not made from energy. They are just numbers on the Grid. Where these wavenumbers add up to their highest values with the total finally squared, the new particle of a sequence is most likely to re-appear. Indeed a pattern can be built up represented by these abstract quantities which represents a probability distribution for organising the places at which particles are to re-appear.
By referring to FIG.1 it works like this. A particle might go through one of the slits and some time later find itself sitting on one of the short thick lines shown just beyond the slits. It vanishes. The Grid effectively throws a dice (random number generator). An oversimplification can be considered to make things easy. Each column of thick lines has previously been allocated a reference number between one and five. The next appearance will be one wave step further from the slits but on any one of the five places shown by the next set of thick lines. So we think of a five-sided dice and choose a number at random. And so the place of re-appearance is determined. The particle lives for a short time and collapses. Then the procedure is repeated. This continues until the particle hits the screen at one of the five allowed places. As more particles follow, jumping about sideways from one allowable path to any of the others in the same way, a pattern of speckles will build up. After many particles have passed, the characteristic interference pattern of stripes will appear on the screen in accord with observation.
In this way particle-sequences really can travel all allowable paths simultaneously. The model provides a perfect explanation for the way a particle seems to go through both slits at the same time. And there are no paradoxes or other contradictions to worry about.
The foregoing description will apply equally to the motion of any kind of sub-atomic particle. It could be an electron or a complete atomic nucleus, for example, or it could be a photon of light. The latter case is the more complex because more than one wave is involved at the same time. The photon will be controlled by the abstract wave-numbers just described, but simultaneously the electromagnetic wave of real physical energy will be propagated. The two very different kinds of wave must not be confused. The universe becomes ever more mysterious.
Atoms need to be organised by similar abstract wave patterns, since they too must be built from particles which keep collapsing. The waves are now wrapped around the nucleus of every atom. This occurs because each electron possesses an electric charge which causes it to be attracted toward the nucleus. The same force is represented as an abstract quantity by the Grid, so that the wave-pattern is affected and curls up on itself to specify a ball shape. That this happens was predicted by the famous wave-model of the atom derived by Schrodinger. His equations described a probability distribution, showing the places in three dimensions at which the electrons were most likely to be found. They were confined to ball or lobe-shaped "orbitals". This model has for many years been accepted as fitting the observed properties of atoms in a very exact way.
If lifetimes are governed by Heisenberg's uncertainty principle, then the electrons make about 250, 000 re-appearances at randomly chosen places in the time they would have taken to orbit the nucleus as permanent entities in the manner of the Bohr description of the atom. FIG.2 can be considered as a picture taken of atoms using an exposure time very brief in comparison with Bohr's orbital period. Each electron has made several re-appearances at random positions. if the exposure time is increased more dots will be seen and when equal to the orbital period all would have merged into a diffuse cloud. In this way the atom can appear as a distributed fuzzy ball of electric charge. The complete atom is electrically neutral owing to an equal and opposite charge existing in the nucleus. If the time taken for disorganised energy to become absorbed by the Grid and jump across the orbital is assumed to be not less than 0.1 of the particle lifetime, then it is readily shown that the speed of propagation along the Grid filaments must be at least 10,000 times the speed of light!
This model for the atom fits in with that specified by Schrodinger's equations to perfection. Nobody has been fully able to reconcile his model with the concept of a permanent electron, which would be committed to orbits like planets going round the Sun. The hydrogen atom is the simplest, having only one electron. If the electron were truly permanent, then this atom would appear the shape of a thin disc instead of as a ball.
In addition "non-locality" or action at a distance is readily explained. A pair of particles, arising simultaneously like identical twins, seem to affect one another instantly whatever their distance of separation. The new explanation is that properties like spin or polarisation are organised to remain the same for all reconstructions. They do not exist in all possible states at once, in a state of limbo waiting to be resolved, as the Copenhagen interpretation demands. With the new model non-locality does not really pose any difficulty.
The new interpretation therefore not only satisfies the observed phenomenon of WPD, it also resolves the difficulty of explaining the shapes of atoms and offers a simple resolution for non-locality. Previous interpretations do not provide such a comprehensive solution. Since also no paradoxes or unreasonable assumptions or predictions are involved, this new interpretation needs to be accepted as a serious contender.
According to the new model, however, the atom ought to radiate photons at a prodigious rate and this does not happen. There is also another question regarding the need for real electrical forces. Solutions for these difficulties were advanced in Chapter 7.
Some particles spontaneously decay into other kinds of particle after a brief life. For example a charged "pion", commonly seen among the cosmic rays penetrating our atmosphere, will spontaneously split in two. It is said to decay to a charged "muon" and an uncharged "muon-neutrino". In the new interpretation it is the
sequence of pions which is broken. Its particle-sequence of real energy breaks up into a pair of other types of particle-sequence. The pair will carry away the same total amount of real energy and momentum as did the original sequence. One kind of particle-sequence is transmuted into other kinds of particle-sequence and all are wave-controlled. Hence what are already known to be unstable particles have another kind of instability superimposed on the primary sort introduced by the new concept.
Some further important implications of the new idea now require discusion. The Grid must offer a means of information transport as well as energy propagation at speeds of at least 10,000 times that of light. This is the "speed of thought" for telepathy which must be transferred directly along the Grid filaments.
The number crunching power of the Grid must be inconceivably huge. This can lead us to a proper definition for the term "psychic energy". It is not a real energy form at all but an abstract computing power. It forms the plan by which physical energies are organised into the structure of matter.
Consciousness as a Separate Entity
Some effects, such as poltergeist activity, cannot be explained without accepting the existence of an invisible companion planet whose sub-atomic particles do not couple with our own. This companion also needs to support intelligent forms of life if a plausible explanation is to be offered. Bizarre though this requirement may appear, it is however completely allowable by the extended physics of the new theory. The selective coupling of one sub-atomic particle to another via other particles of the vacuum called "mediators" is required to explain, for example, the electromagnetic force. To explain interpenetrating systems of matter the idea of selective coupling merely needs extension. Particles need to be able to recognise a certain frequency band, interact with particles carrying that label and ignore all others. In the new theory these frequencies are associated with the
wave numbers and are abstract quantities. This extended physics allows several independent systems of matter to be supported on a single Grid. Hence the idea that the consciousness can exist as a separate entity from the body is also supportable by physics. This is called the "soul" in religious circles and so physics now comes out as a supporting prop!. It is also clear that such a system of interpenetrating universes could not have arisen by happy accident. The fine tuning of the physical laws involved could only have arisen as a deliberate creative act. Some part of the otherwise amoral Grid must therefore have evolved further to develop a consciousness and a driving will. An evolutionary process could have been involved as considered at some length in Chapter 6.
The new theory therefore differs in a fundamental way from established physics. As a result of history the antipathy built up between science and religion seems to have blocked the way toward this kind of solution. Established theories all assume the universe arose by accident and disallow the possibility of any spiritual existence. If this approach is fundamentally wrong, and it begins to look as though this is the case, then established science could be stuck on a false trail. A strange unholy alliance seems to have evolved between science and religion for the support of the purely materialist case. For as well as seeming to support the contrary scientific view, strangely, some religious sects also use it as a prop. It seems that the established Church wants to go on as it always has. It wants its congregations to follow by blind faith and faith alone. It does not seek justification from scientific proof or any other kind of proof for the existence of any hereafter. Indeed it strongly opposes any such proof. It seems afraid of proof.
To me this looks a totally absurd response. Without proof, in the present climate of public knowledge, the established Church can only wither and die. It
needs proof of the basic elements of its belief system and these are common to almost all religious faiths. They are simply the idea of a creative force behind the universe and a spiritual existence continuing where Earth-life leaves off.
Yet these things are compatible with extended physics as we have already shown. There need be no dividing gulf between science and religion. The two disciplines need to appear as different aspects of the same thing in total harmony and in collaboration with each other. Then and only then can both revive. The Church of England clearly needs a new look. Less than 2 1/2% of the population are said to regularly attend its services. There has been much criticism of physics in recent years. It is simply not producing value commensurate with investment. So this discipline also needs a new direction for its revival.
The existing solutions for wave-particle duality seem to lean over backwards to avoid supporting an possible creationist view. They involve infinite numbers of interpenetrating systems of matter at any, place, contravene the law of causality, or postulate that universes are created by the combined minds of human beings. Yet they fail to suggest how such minds can be connected. These minds, nevertheless, even structure matter in the past as well as the present, in order that they can exist! Furthermore such older solutions, despite extreme complexity, fail to provide answers to all the phenomena presented by Nature. They do not resolve the way in which Schrodinger's wave equation can model an atom whose electrons are made from permanent energy. They do not throw light on the way non-locality works. The established explanation is that space is so highly curved in higher dimensions that it folds back on itself. Then all points in space are connected together in some kind of short-circuit. This explanation is quite impossible to imagine because, as far as we can prove, space can only have three dimensions of length. And of course older theories do not explain psychic phenomena. The complexity, implausibility and inadequacies of these interpretations need to be remembered.
Then the new concept is unlikely to be discarded on grounds of the sheer scale of numbers or other mindboggling features which are involved and cannot be avoided. These simply mean that the universe is an even more wonderful creation than we have ever imagined it to be.
Real and Virtual Particles
In established physics the sub-atomic particles of matter have been considered "real" in the sense of having a permanent existence. But others are also necessary whose existence is temporary. According to quantum theory "empty space" is not empty at all but consists of a seething mass of "virtual" particles. This is the case even in the space of high vacuum existing between the stars and galaxies. Such particles are invisible and each exists for only a fleeting instant because it has no permanent energy. Their effects are observable because some are the so-called "mediators" which push sub-atomic particles about and so produce the forces of nature.
Virtual particles, arising in unimaginably huge numbers at random throughout space, live for a fleeting instant and vanish. Some will impinge upon sub-atomic particles of much lower density and are transformed by a kind of catalytic process into mediators. These are specialised virtual particles carrying tags so that they can be selectively recognised by other sub-atomic particles. When recognised they interact with greater than when unrecognised and transfer their momentum. The interacting sub-atomic particle then experiences an unbalanced force in line with the source of the mediators.
Some mediators are made from positive energy and carry positive momentum so that a force of repulsion is produced. Others are made from negative energy and carry negative momentum. These account for the forces of attraction. For example, the electric forces of repulsion and attraction are explained this way in the new theory. More details of the coupling scheme are illustrated in FIG.6 and described in Chapter 10.
For the new scheme to work, half the virtual particles of space have to be generated in positive energy states with the other half negative. Despite the unimaginably huge densities of either half, space overall, therefore, acts as a fluid of zero net energy. The particle generation needed to maintain this fluid derives from constructional facilities distributed all over the Grid filaments, which are also made as a balance of positive and negative energy forms. The fluid space, rather similar to air, can flow past the Grid filaments as if it had an independent existence. The matter we see is built from a tiny fraction of the total number of particles comprising space.
The new theory deduced that real particles are not real at all but have short lives, just like the virtual particles of space. The difference is that the energy from which they are constructed is real. When a particle expires its energy is absorbed by the Grid. Energy is then to be thought of as a mercurial fluid able to instantly transfer to any other place in this form. It is used for new production so that a real particle actually consists of a series of reconstructions based on the same piece of energy. They are controlled by numbers on the Grid. They are not our numbers, instead the numbers used are "wave amplitudes", which can be added like our numbers and squared to produce "wave functions" so that interference patterns can be mapped. The Grid, therefore, needs also to have a computer-like capacity, with the ability to add and store wave-functions for the control of
Fantastically complex though this structure has to be, it cannot be dismissed as absurd or impossible. The quantum description of space adds supporting evidence. Physics has already accepted that some virtual particles are complex structures similar to electrons. Many of these act as particle factories themselves, throwing out tagged mediators in all directions during their brief lives as they fly. These tags enable them to be recognised in a selective manner by other particles they encounter. The latter then interact either strongly or weakly according to a pre-arranged plan. It seems less extraordinary to think particles arise from some hidden constructional facility than that they just happen without a cause as in established theory.
It is also satisfying to see that the new concept provides a new kind of unification. The so-called "real" particles which are observable have essentially the same description as the virtual ones of space. in older theories they are similarly constructed but real particles are relatively permanent, whilst only virtual ones have fleeting lives.
Finally, in order to provide a mechanism able to explain attractive forces half the mediators of space needed to be carriers of negative momentum. (Momentum is defined as mass times velocity). This meant they had to consist of negative forms of energy. A condensed object like a star had its concentrated net positive energy balanced by a tenuous halo of negative energy spread out over a huge volume of space. This halo consisted of the primary mediators responsible for the universally attractive force of gravitation. The two kinds of energy, positive and negative, are complementary. They are the Yin and Yang of both matter and space, absolutely dependent on each other for their existence. This is because at the beginning only nothingness existed. Only exactly equal and opposite forms of energy could arise from nothing to accord with a modified First Law of Thermodynamics. Then the same zero value of net energy of the universe exists at all times, including the transition across the creative event. The Grid structure is also therefore limited to a construction from filaments of balanced positive and negative energies. The crossing-points form natural switches and these form the basis of the computing system.
Matter and space though continuously regenerated from the grid filaments are so contrived as to enjoy a relatively independent existence. They flow past the filaments in the manner of a fluid. As shown in Chapter T.S.2, this fluid cannot offer resistance and so cannot be in any way viscous. It must be a superfluid like helium. Also as described in Chapter 5 and further studied in Chapters T.S.2 and T.S.3, this fluid needs to be slightly compressible. It is a compressible superfluid. Yet it has very special properties. Space exists as exactly balanced halves of positive and negative energy states and so its net energy density is zero. It has negligible inertia. A tiny fraction of its particles constitute matter owing to the selective coupling properties between certain types of sub-atomic Particle. Owing to this coupling, apparently solid objects are simulated, whilst in reality they flow as a fluid past the Grid filaments.
Gravitation would tend to affect the Grid filaments just like matter. It is therefore necessary that virtual particles be fired from them in a counter direction to impinge on those of space, so transferring the force to the fluid which established physics calls "space". In this manner matter can clump by gravitational force without affecting the Grid.
This model fits the data we have available. Since no other existing model does, extraordinary though it may appear, it needs to be considered as a serious proposition.
In order to make sure everything has been grasped properly it will be worthwhile summing up the points of major importance. First let us collect the definitions of terms used.
Some Definitions in Physics
Energy (or "physical" energy measured in joules)
Energy is the building substance of both the matter and motion of all objects in the universe. The energy of matter, the "rest energy", which is the amount measured when an object is not moving, can be added to any energy of motion, the "kinetic energy". Hence when an object is in motion its "total energy" is the sum of the two and so is higher than the rest energy.
There are + & - kinds of energy, irrespective of whether they carry electric charge or not. But if a + form hits a + form it knocks it away, yielding a repulsive response, and if a - form hits a + form it pulls it back, producing an attractive response.
(Only + energies are allowed in established quantum theory)
When air is pumped out of an enclosed space the number of molecules flying about inside gradually reduces. Ultimately it is theoretically possible to produce an absolute vacuum, in which case no free molecules exist inside. However, according to quantum theory this does not mean that nothing is present. In quantum theory the vacuum is filled with a seething mass of "virtual" particles, which are, however, totally invisible.
Are sub-atomic particles of the quantum vacuum. They arise spontaneously from nothing without any permanent energy. The energy needed for their construction needs to be "borrowed", like a debt needing to be repaid an instant later. Hence they arise from nothingness and vanish again to nothingness. The name "virtual" means lack of reality energy-wise.
Are the specialised virtual particles of the quantum vacuum which produce forces by hitting objects we can sense. mediators cannot be sensed directly. They are generated from the surfaces of sub-atomic particles with special tags so that they can be recognised by others they may hit. Whether they interact or not is determined by these tags. Specialised mediators allow matter to be structured, so that particles of the nucleus feel the strong force, for example, but the electron clouds around them do not.
This is all pure quantum theory except that negative energy states are not yet accepted to exist in establishment physics. This is one of the new features.
Energy (Again this is a new definition)
This is where there may still be some confusion and the cause is that the word "energy" is being used in a different sense from that used in physics. We really need a new word for this. My definition of psychic energy is the computing power of the Grid which was shown to be required, permeating all space. It is not energy of the kind from which anything is made, rather it is an abstract form like a set of numbers. A combination of numbers can be used for control, so this is more a power of information as in a control system.
This means that when people talk about "force" or energy" fields in regard to dowsing or psychometry, the physical energy of matter and motion is not relevant and must not be equated with the psychic form, which is the one operative in such cases.
Universe as Psychic and Physical Energies Combined
Yet in another sense the two can be combined but this is not a straight arithmetical addition, because they do not have the same units. Only things which have the same units can be added together. For example it is not possible to add 10 seconds to 2 feet, because one has the units of time and the other the units of distance. Indeed the units of physical energy, whether positive or negative, can be measured in the units of joules. But psychic energy, being an abstract quantity, has no units. The latter is simply a control system used in this new theory to locate the places where real energy, that of particles, is to be allowed to appear. In the same way the energy or power of mind is the psychic form. Again this is information and is abstract.
To structure matter according to this theory, both forms appear. The psychic form arises from "wave functions" stored in the memory banks of the all-pervading Grid as numbers to provide an information system and this specifies where the physical energy is to be located. If preferred, this could be called "real" energy.
Hence in the new theory psychic energy is not reserved for other planes of existence with real energy being allocated to our level. Instead all levels of existence, assuming that a set of interpenetrating universes actually exist, are built from a subtle combination of both psychic and real kinds. Psychic energy provides the plan by which the real energy is structured, so that matter appears and acts in the way it does. The real energy then constitutes the building blocks. But real energy alone would be disorganised and so could not exist as the matter we observe.
Charge is connected with the electrical forces of attraction and repulsion and in quantum theory these forces are produced by "mediators".
There are two kinds of electric charge, + & -
+ & + produces mutual repulsion
- & - " " "
+ & - " " attraction.
To produce these responses the particle has to throw off both + & - forms of energy as mediators and one or the other has to be recognised for interaction to arise. The "spin-coupling" scheme shown in FIG.6 provides a possible explanation and is discussed later. (Again this is not established quantum theory)
So there are + & - forms of physical energy and + & - forms of electric charge. The two cases must not be confused, though they are related in that for forces to arise between charged particles a transaction of particles made from one or other kind of virtual physical energy is required (Again a new feature).
Atoms are constructed from minute sub-atomic particles. They have dense and relatively massive nuclei, surrounded by very light electrons. The hydrogen atom is simplest, as it has as its nucleus only a single proton and a single electron moves about it confined to a ball-shaped orbital. The electron sparks in and out of existence in a random manner anywhere inside this ball of space controlled by psychic energy as numbers patterned on the Grid and in so doing defines the size of the atom.
So a rather complex system obtains. The electromagnetic force, a combination of the electric and magnetic kinds, has to be present in order to bind atoms together but only the abstract model of this force is needed to confine electrons within a tiny ball of space.
Atoms can stick together because of this electromagnetic force. Magnetism arises when electric charges are in motion. The electrons are spinning and also travel during their brief appearances and so magnetic effects are present. But although the atoms stick together they do not interpenetrate very far because the mutually repulsive forces of the electrons prevent this. Consequently they appear hard and solid to us, whereas in reality they are almost empty space and their hardness is an illusion.
Atoms are therefore not solid at all. They are mostly space. All complete atoms are electrically neutral because the positive charge carried by the nucleus is always balanced exactly by the negative charge of the electron cloud.
It is quite conceivable that other forms of matter could exist made from the same kinds of physical energy and organised in the same way by psychic energy as information on a common Grid. They would be based on the same fundamental laws of nature as our own, but if their mediators were so arranged that they did not couple with our sub-atomic particles, then they would not be detectable. There is so much space inside the atom that all such other forms could mutually interpenetrate.
Our horizons should now have been extended by new insights. Let us therefore explore the universe from a new angle. In the next two chapters we will investigate what many people say is inexplicable.